SILAHARAS-A. D. 770-C-1020 A. D. A. D.

The oldest of the Silahara Houses-and there were three of them, ruling over Western India [The other two branches were Silaharas of North Konkan (Thana) and the Silaharas of Kolhapur.]-was ruling over this part i.e. south Konkan from C. 770 to. C. 1020 A. D. With one or two exceptions, the rulers of these families never aspired for the Imperial crown and they were all along feudatories in status, professing allegiance first to the Rashtrakutas and then to the Chalukyas, the Kadambas and the Yadavas. The Kharepatan plates in Ratnagiri district of Anantadev refer to a Dayadavairivyasana, but the silaharas of southern Konkan aver that they were connected with the kings of Simhala and not to the town of Tagara as the other two branches namely of Thana and Kolhapur, obviously do. The kings of Simhala were more probably the rulers of Goa [Altekar, Indian Culture, II, 393; Nairne, 15.]. South Konkan and the territories ruled over by the Silaharas were under the influence of the Canarese. Most of the names of the ministers of the Silahara kings show that they hailed from Karnatak [Altekar, 393; Nairne, 15.]. The names of the rulers of this house are known to us from the Kharepatan grant of Rattaraja [Altekar, Ibid; Nairne, 21; Bhandarkar (Bapat), 251-252.].

Sanaphulla-C. 765 to C. 795 A. D.

Dhamnura-C. 795 to C. 820 A. D.

Aiyaparaja-C. 820 to C. 845 A. D.

Avasara I-C. 845 to C. 870 A. D.

Avasara II-C. 895 to C. 920 A. D.

Indrasaja-C. 920 to C. 945 A. D.

Bhima-C. 945 to C. 970 A. D.

Avasara III-C. 970 to C. 995 A. D.

Rattaraja-C. 995 to 1020 A. D.

(Known year-1008 A. D.)

The founder of this house, according to the Kharepatan plate, obtained the lordship over the territory between the Sahya mountain and the sea, through the favour of Krishnaraja [Krishnarajaprasadavan Samudratirasahyantadesa Samsabanobhavat. Kharepatan plate quoted by Altekar.]. By B. C. 895, during the rule of Adityavarma, the sphere of influence of the Southern Silaharas had extended over the whole of Konkan, from Goa to Bombay [Ibid. 400.]. Rattaraja was, after the overthrow of the Rashtrakutas, compelled to recognise the Chalukya sovereignty. While Aparajita of the Thana Silaharas had assumed independent power [Nairne, 16.], Rattaraja may have declared independence soon after the death of Satyashraya, Jayasimha, younger brother of Vikramaditya, who succeeded Satyashraya, inflicted a signal defeat on the Cholas of the south and while returning from the south, defeated Rattaraja or his son and annexed his kingdom. Thus ended the career of the Silahara House of the South, about 250 years, after its foundation [Altekar, Ibid. 401.]. The district of Ratnagiri was under the Silaharas and the capital of their kingdom, which, however, is not mentioned in their records but was probably Goa and later it may have been transferred to a more central place in the vicinity of Ratnagiri or Kharepatan [Altekar, Ibid. 412.].


Certain parts of the Ratnagiri district were included in the kingdom of the Northern Silaharas, which came under this house sometime after the extinction of the Silaharas, of Southern Konkan [Altekar, Ibid. 16.]. The founder, of the house, Kapardin, was a contemporary of the Rashtrakuta Emperor Govind III. He seems to have given active help to that emperor in his numerous wars and was rewarded by the grant of the feudatory rulership over Northern Konkan. The capital was at Thana [Altekar, 402; Nairne, 15. The dates given by Nairne in 1895 are slightly different.].

1 Dotted lines indicate that the relationship between the two kings is not known.

After the turning battle in the Silahara-Kadamba war was fought in 1126 A. D., as a result of the victory, Aparaka ceased to be a Kadamba feudatory and regained most of his hereditary possessions. The Chiplun inscription, dated 2nd December 1157 leads to understand that Prabhakar Nayak was Mallikarjuna's foreign minister and that Mallikarjuna, having no fear from the Kadambas, engaged in a bitter struggle with the Hoysalas and was ruling over Ratnagiri district, till the end of his rule (C. 1170 A. D.). He, however, could not long enjoy his kingdom in peace as his northern neighbour, Chalukya Kumarapala of Gujarat was an ambitious ruler and pretending to be offended by a pretentious title taken by Mallikarjuna, he invaded his dominions. Mallikarjuna being defeated and slain, Kumarapala's rule was established for a while over Mallikarjuna's territory. During the reign of Keshiraja (C. 1195 to C. 1240 A. D.) the Yadavas of Devgiri were rapidly extending their power and Keshiraja must have been compelled by them to recognise their suzerainty [Altekar, 416; Nairne, 21].

The inscriptions throw light on the condition of the kingdom. The administration seems to have been carried on by the king assisted by a great councillor or a great minister, a great minister for peace and war, two treasury lords and sometimes a chief secretary. The subordinate machinery consisted of the heads of district Rashtras, heads of sub-divisions, Vishayas, heads of towns and heads of villages [Nairne, 21]. The Silahara administration was very methodical. Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism were all living side by side in the Silahara districts very amicably, but the Silaharas themselves were Hindus [Altekar, 427.]. A verse in the Kharepatan plates of Anantdeva suggests that they held in specially high reverence Somanatha of Prabhasa [Gatva Saisava eva Sainyasahite drshtva cha Somesvarani Tasyagri picturajnaya jagadalni yah Kilayitvagatah, Altekar, 427.]. The Kharepatan plates further reveal that temples used to maintain schools and sattras, which helped considerably the task of the propagation of religion, culture and education. The Musalmans in the beginning of the thirteenth century and the Portuguese in the sixteenth century destroyed temples and stone-faced reservoirs by the score. Some of the Silaharas seem to have encouraged learning. One Of them Aparaditya I even sent a Konkan representative to a great meeting of learned men in Kashmir [Nairne, 22.]. The feudal lords of the Silaharas were first the Rashtrakutas and then the Chalukyas, Paramaras or the Kadambas.

SILAHARAS OF KOLHAPUR.(C.940, C. 1000 to C. 1215 A. D.)

The third Silahara house rose to prominence at the beginning of 11th century. It held sway over a portion of the southern Konkan for sometime. The Rashtrakutas who were formerly ruling over this area had fallen, their successors, the Chalukyas were engaged in a bloody war with the Paramaras and the Cholas and so Jatiga, the Silahara king may have succeeded in carving out a principality for himself.

Gonka is described as the conqueror of Konkan. But Jayasimha had already conquered South Konkan. Hence, it seems natural that he may have for the convenience of administration, allowed Gonka to rule over such portions of South Konkan which he could manage to hold against the Kadambas. Bhoja I was repulsed by Achugi II trusted feudatory of Vikramaditya VI, the Chalukyan emperor [Altekar, 422-23.]. Achugi II became the saviour of the Chalukya empire which at the close of the glorious rule of Vikramaditya VI, was attacked by the Hoyasalas from the south, by the Goa Kadambas from the west, by the Karad Silaharas from the north and by the Uchchangi Pandyas from the east. It was only through the instrumentality of Achugi that the emperor Vikrama was able to hold these refractory Mahamandaleshvaras in check [Dinkar Desai, 422-423, Mahamandaleshvaras under Chalukyas (Bom. Uni.), 1933, pp. 95-96.].